INSECT ECOLOGY & INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT INCLUDING BENEFICIAL INSECTS
1. Principles of applied entomology – economic classification of insects.
2. Bee species – comparison – castes of bees – bee behaviour and bee dance.
3. Apiary management practices – bee pasturage – foraging – seasonal variations.
4. Role of bees in cross pollination – their exploitation – case studies with selected crops.
5. Bee products – their properties and uses.
6. Effect of agricultural inputs on bee activity – pesticide poisoning.
7. Role of pollinators, weed killers and other beneficial insects.
8. Management of household pests, vectors of human diseases and pests of cattle and poultry.
9. Insect ecology – definition – balance of life in nature – reproductive potential and environmental resistance.
10. Population dynamics – role of biotic factors – competition – parasitoids and predatots. Life table – Interspecific and intraspecific relationship.
11. Abiotic factors – physical, nutritional and host plant associated factors on insect population. Bioresources in ecosystems.
12. Pests – definition, categories and causes for outbreak of pests. Losses caused by pests.
13. Pest monitoring – pest surveillance and forecasting – objectives, survey, sampling techniques and decision making. Economic Threshold Level and Economic Injury Level. Factors influencing Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Level.
14. Pest Management – definition – need – objectives, requirements for successful pest management programme. Components of pest management.
15. Cultural methods – definition – characteristics, requisites – farm level practices and community level practices, advantages and disadvantages.
16. Physical methods – definition – use of heat, moisture, light, electromagnetic energy and sound energy – Mechanical methods – definition – mechanical destruction and exclusion – merits and demerits.
17. Legal methods – definition – pest introductions – quarantine – phytosanitary certificate –
18. Host plant resistance – definition – types and mechanisms, ecological and genetic resistance.
19. Host-plant resistance in pest management – compatibility with other pest management practices – merits and demerits.
20. Biological control – definition – history and development – classical examples – factors governing biological control.
21. Predators and parasitoids of agricultural importance – role in pest management.
22. Chemical control – definition – history of insecticide development – toxicity parameters –
ideal qualities of an insecticide.
23. Classification of insecticides based on mode of entry, mode of action and chemical nature.
Insecticides Act 1968 – insecticide residues and waiting periods. Role of pesticides in pest management.
24. Semiochemicals – definition – intraspecific semiochemicals – allomone, kairomone, synomone and apneumone.
25. Interspecific semiochemicals – pheromone, sex pheromone, alarm and trail marking pheromone. Pheromones in Integrated Pest Management.
26. Sterility methods – definition – principles – methods – requirements and limitaitons.
27. Insect growth regulators – moult inhibitors – Juvenile Hormone mimics – mode of action and uses. Insect antifeedants and repellents – mode of action, groups and uses.
28. Pesticide application technology – principles and methods.
29. Pesticide compatibility, safety and hazards – antidotes – safe handling – impact of pesticides on agroecosystems. Impact of global warming on pests.
30. Integrated Pest Management – history, principles and strategies – relationship between different components and economics.
31. Integrated Pest Management : Issues and options. Eco friendly Integrated Pest
Management – Indigenous/traditional technologies in Integrated Pest Management.
Specific Integrated Pest Management practices for rice and cotton. Biotechnology in pest management.
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